|（School of History and Culture，Hubei University，Wuhan 430062，China）
Abstract: Since the birth of modern Olympic Games, people have had 5 misunderstandings toward ancient Olympic Games: ancient Olympic Games aimed at promoting peace; ancient Olympic Games were not related to politics; an-cient Olympic Games participants were for honors instead of interests; ancient Olympic Games focused more on participation and friendship; ancient Olympic Games were totally amateur. These misunderstandings have been gradually eliminated in western countries with the deepening of classical study made since the 20th century, but still exist in China. Analyzing these misunderstandings can not only introduce new knowledge to the public, but also be conducive for us to further understand the nature of the Olympic moment. They are actually a coating of rose color on the ancient by modern people, but not the true color of the ancient society. They reflect modern people’s own confusions and anxieties. Understanding these misunderstandings is not for teaching people to be pessimistic, but for hoping that modern people will creatively solve their own problems in stead of being confined by the imaginary ancient society.
Key words: ancient world history；ancient Olympic Games；modern Olympic Games；Coubertin