|（School of Physical Education and Health，East China Normal University，Shanghai 200241，China)
Abstract: There have been “beneficial” and “harmful” arguments about the relationship between sport and health all the time. Sports history study based on cultural history provides a new research theory and method for analyzing and setting the two arguments. The transition of human body consciousness becomes the core for probing into the relationship between sport and health. Under body holism in ancient Greece, sport formed the “holistic health” of the body, mind and society; under body dualism in the middle ages, health was divided, sport could only form physical health; while under the development of science, technologies and theories in the Renaissance period, sport was related to the health of the body, mind and society, but it formed “divided” health under the abstraction of ra-tional power. Analyzing the relationship between sport and health under the history of human body consciousness can resolve the current contradictive understandings about their relationship on the one hand, and enable body study to be carried out on sport and let sports history study feed back to history study on the other hand.
Key words: sports history；sport；health；body consciousness