（Department of Modern Chinese History，Graduate School，Chinese Academy of Social Science，Beijing 102488，China)
Abstract: In order to probed into the influence of modern school and discipline systems on traditional Wushu, and to contemplate a way of inheritance of traditional Chinese sports under the dominance of modern western sports, the au-thor examined and analyzed professional school Wushu in the Republic of China period. By reading and analyzing all sorts of historical data such as archives, newspapers and education statistics, the author concluded that such two pur-suits as “modern western sports popularization” and “nationalization” let Wushu gain an important status in school physical education, which was the driving force for professional school Wushu to boom in the Republic of China pe-riod. The former boosted professional school Wushu to remodel traditional Wushu in terms of teaching subject and teaching content etc, thus to blend into Modern Western Sports Science; the latter boosted professional school Wushu to build theoretical systems, thus to development into relatively independent “Chinese Sports Science”. In the Republic of China period, professional school Wushu, in terms of academic level, enriched Wushu contents, cultivated a lot of Wushu talents, promoted Wushu popularization, however, it also damage the integrity of traditional Wushu, and its overall performance still needed to be improved. Today, in order to solve problems existing in school Wushu, we should not only continue to deepen Wushu discipline construction in the education system of the physical education major, but also respect and support the intrinsic way of folk inheritance of traditional sports.
Key words: traditional Chinese sports；professional school Wushu；modern western sports；discipline construction