(Postdoctoral Station of Physical Education，South China Normal University，Guangzhou 510006，China)
Abstract: By means of double evidence and filed investigation, and combining with the geographic environment and productivity development, this paper conducts a historically empirical research on the origin and development of the horsemanship and archery tradition of the nomadic people in northern China. The research holds that the pre-conditions to create horsemanship and archery are the invention of fire and bow as well as the domestication of horse, and the direct reasons to create horsemanship and archery for nomadic people are chilly climate and the in-vention of harness; the remaining people with upper culture in Xiajiadian may be the earliest northern nation that horsemanship and archery are on the back of the horse, and the advent of horsemanship and archery may be earlier than the formation of the professional nomadic nation; with the interaction and iteration of the regime for nomadic nation, and the increasing invention, creation and improvement of harness and bow, promotes the evolution and de-velopment of horsemanship and archery tradition; geographic environment must be the soil to maintain survive and develop for horsemanship and archery tradition, and the adoration and dependence for the nature also evolves lots of sacrifice and creation activities related to horsemanship and archery. Under the perspective of construction with multinational country, this study examines the historical effect and realistic meaning of Chinese ancient sports through investigating and reviewing the formation of horsemanship and archery tradition for nomadic nation.
Key words: sports history；the nomadic nation in northern China；horsemanship and archery tradition；geographical environment；harness and Yuya